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La naissance (1/3) : Quand le travail commence

Une naissance se fait à trois. Pour la mère et, de plus en plus de nos jours pour le père, l’arrivée du premier enfant représente une expérience bouleversante. Mais il y a quelqu’un d’autre pour qui ce jour est vraiment essentiel, c’est la troisième personne : le nouveau-né.

Un fœtus vit confiner dans une nuit tiède et délicieuse. Il baigne dan son environnement et se confond avec lui. Sa peau est enduite d’une matière visqueuse. Il flotte dans le liquide amniotique qui comble l’utérus. Il ne connaît ni frottement, ni changement, ses yeux sont prêts à voir, mais ils n’ont rien à voir. Il n’a pas besoin de respirer, de digérer. Aucune sensation ne lui vient de ses organes. Il perçoit, très amortis et étouffés, les bruits et les mouvements. Il est à l’abri du monde, préservé, intouchable.

Mais bientôt, l’utérus va le rejeter et il va être obligé de vivre par lui-même, sous l’avalanche de stimuli dont va l’accabler le monde extérieur. Il lui faut se préparer à naître.

Il va sortir de l’utérus par un étroit passage élastique, formé par le col dilaté et le vagin. La place dont il disposera, limitée par le squelette du bassin, sera suffisante, mais tout juste. Aussi, de même qu’un pieu entre mieux dans le sol lorsque son extrémité est taillée en pointe, de même le bébé progressera plus aisément si c’est le pôle le plus étroit de son corps qui se présente le premier. Il va donc se placer la tête en bas.

Comme les os du crâne ne sont pas encore soudés, il existe entre eux des espaces, les fontanelles, qui permettent à la tête de se réduire un peu et cette réduction se fait mieux si le visage du bébé est tourné vers votre dos. Donc, lorsqu’il sera prêt à naître, le bébé se placera la tête en bas, orientée vers l’arrière.

Vers la fin de la grossesse, l’utérus descend dans l’abdomen et la tête de l’enfant s’engage dans le petit bassin, appuyant sur le col utérin encore fermé. À partir de ce moment, le bébé va se tenir tranquille et, lorsque vous serez dans votre bain, ses mouvements ne feront plus glisser le savon sur votre ventre ! Comme l’utérus appuie moins sur le diaphragme, vous avez moins de mal à respirer à fond.

Quand le travail commence, tous les parents, même les mieux préparés, ont tendance à être pris de court. Ce n’est pas que le début du processus soit difficile à reconnaître : c’est que les mots, aussi précis qu’ils soient, sont impuissants à décrire la nature essentiellement physique de l’accouchement. C’est une impression extraordinaire, que de sentir son corps pris en charge par des forces incontrôlables. Toute notre éducation nous a appris à nous maîtriser dans la plupart des domaines, à attendre pour aller aux toilettes, à nous retenir de bâiller, de tousser, d’éternuer ou de nous endormir en public… Mais l’accouchement triomphe de toute contrainte. Une fois le travail commencé, votre bébé viendra au monde, avec ou sans votre coopération. Les contractions se produiront à leur rythme et avec la force nécessaire, jusqu’à la dilatation complète de la filière pelvi-génitale et pousseront ensuite irrésistiblement le bébé vers l’extérieur. Impossible de demander un répit, de donner un coup de téléphone, d’attendre le médecin ou de changer d’avis. Il vous faut subir l’expérience. Car en réalité ce n’est pas vous qui êtes concernée, mais l’enfant : votre corps n’est rien d’autre que l’instrument de sa naissance.

Il vous est impossible de le voir retourné, poussé, pressé par les contractions douloureuses qu’a déclenchées le travail. Vous ne pouvez observer son lent cheminement le long de ce passage où l’entraîne la poussée convulsive et involontaire de votre corps.  Vous ne savez pas s’il a mal, s’il a peur. Mais c’est lui, le but du travail. C’est lui, et non vous, le héros du spectacle. Tout votre corps s’emploie à réussir son entrée dans le monde. Pensez à lui pendant les poussées, pensez à ses sentiments, au moins à partir du moment où il émerge : cela l’aidera sûrement.

Pénélope Leach, Votre enfant, de la naissance à la grande école, Éditions Albin Michel.

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